Raj Dasgupta, MD
Raj Dasgupta, MD

Certified physician specializing in internal medicine, pulmonology, critical care, and sleep medicine.
kaged mindset

Kaged Mindset Review

kaged mindset
Unleash your cognitive potential with Kaged Mindset – the ultimate nootropic drink.

What Is Kaged Mindset

Kaged positions itself as a high-end supplement brand, and it’s not an exaggeration to say that they have earned this reputation. Despite their polished marketing, few companies in the world of supplements can match their products. Recently, Kaged has entered the world of nootropics, which is a noteworthy shift in focus from their previous emphasis on physical fitness and aesthetic improvement. However, this pivot is not entirely unexpected.

At first glance, it appears that Kaged has applied the same rigorous approach to developing Mindset, their new nootropic product, as they have to their other supplements. Their focus is on using top-tier ingredients in scientifically-backed doses, which is no small feat considering the relative dearth of research in the field of nootropics compared to supplements for bodybuilding, for example.

But a closer examination of the ingredients in both the caffeinated and non-caffeinated versions of Mindset shows the extent to which Kaged has invested in creating a truly outstanding nootropic that can compete with, and even exceed, existing products on the market.

Kaged deserves praise for developing both stimulant and non-stimulant versions of Mindset from the outset, ensuring that there is an option for everyone. Both versions are plant-based, GMO-free, and free from banned substances, making them safe for athletes to use.

One thing that sets Mindset apart from its competitors is that it is not in pill form; instead, it comes as a powder that can be mixed with water to create a tasty orange mango-flavored drink. More on my personal experience with this product later in my review of Mindset…

Kaged Mindset Benefits

Before delving into my personal experience using Kaged Mindset, let’s explore the key benefits that Kaged claims their supplement can provide and examine how it can enhance cognitive function.

Kaged Mindset promises to deliver five primary brain-boosting benefits that include long-lasting energy, increased productivity, improved attention, enhanced focus, and sharpened memory. These benefits are not uncommon in the world of nootropics and can provide both immediate and long-term effects.

Undoubtedly, these benefits are crucial for individuals seeking to maximize their cognitive potential, regardless of their field or profession. This includes individuals in education, top-level professionals, writers, athletes, and more.

Now, let’s turn our attention to the ingredients in Mindset and how they contribute to these benefits before I delve into my own experience with the supplement.

Mindset Ingredients

The ingredient profile of Mindset is impressive, featuring a selection of cutting-edge components and patented ingredients. The powder format of the product allows for easy dose adjustment, depending on your individual tolerance level and experience with nootropics.

Kaged recommends using 1 scoop for a strong effect and 2 scoops for the full effect. However, as with any supplement, individual responses may vary, and new users should start with a lower dose to gauge their sensitivity to the ingredients. Despite this, the cost-effectiveness of Mindset makes it an attractive option for those who desire a more potent dose by doubling up.

Without the addition of caffeine, the ingredients in Mindset offer excellent value for money, and even at 1 scoop, they are well-dosed. In conclusion, Mindset is an intriguing supplement that boasts a diverse range of beneficial components, making it a promising choice for those seeking to enhance their cognitive function.

Vitamin B Complex

A comprehensive nootropic regimen typically includes a high-quality vitamin B complex, and Mindset is no exception. Each serving of this supplement contains 10mg of vitamin B6, 250mcg of vitamin B12, and 15mg of Vitamin B3 (Niacin), which offer a range of physical and cognitive benefits, including the repair of neurotransmitters.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a crucial antioxidant that protects the brain from oxidative stress and facilitates dopamine production. With 75mg per scoop in Mindset, this potent nutrient delivers a range of physical benefits, too.

Alpha GPC

Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline (Alpha GPC) is a key nootropic that promotes the release of acetylcholine in the brain, which is our most prominent neurotransmitter. By boosting acetylcholine production, cognitive functions are heightened. Mindset delivers a healthy 600mg dose of Alpha GPC per serving.


L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that helps us cope with stressful situations by producing catecholamines, which are essential in “fight or flight” scenarios. Additionally, L-Tyrosine is thought to improve focus and motivation, making it a valuable cognitive enhancer. Mindset provides an optimal daily dose of 500mg.

Acetyl L-Carnitine

Acetyl L-Carnitine is another amino acid that is typically found in fat-burning supplements, but is also known to boost cognitive energy. Mindset contains 500mg per serving, making it a promising addition to the nootropic blend.

Huperzine A

Huperzine A, found in Mindset at a concentration of 5mg per serving, is a powerful cognitive enhancer. Similar to Alpha GPC, it prevents the reduction of acetylcholine in the brain, allowing for optimal cognitive function.

Panax Ginseng Extract

Panax Ginseng Extract, an ingredient used for centuries in the East, is thought to promote a state of flow. Although difficult to scientifically pinpoint, anecdotal evidence supports its inclusion in nootropic blends. Mindset delivers a well-dosed 100mg per scoop.


Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that helps maintain healthy nerve cell membranes and protects against age-related cognitive decline. Although present in many foods, it is difficult to consume enough of it to experience its full benefits. Mindset provides 50mg per serving.


L-phenylalanine, a mood-regulating amino acid that aids in dopamine production, is included in Mindset at a dose of 150mg per scoop.

Mineral Complex

Mindset’s patented mineral complex contains a total of 50mg of minerals, including zinc, calcium, vanadium, copper, iron, boron, and chromium, among others. Although the exact amounts of each mineral are unknown, this addition to the blend provides a range of physical benefits, with additional cognitive benefits possible.

PurCaf Caffeine

Caffeine, the world’s most popular nootropic, provides an instant energy boost within 30 minutes of consumption. Mindset utilizes organic green coffee beans, which offer a clean and efficient form of caffeine that reduces the risk of a post-caffeine crash. Each scoop of Mindset contains 150mg of caffeine, equivalent to approximately two cups of coffee.

Extended Release Caffeine

To further prevent a post-caffeine crash, Mindset includes zümXR® Extended Release Caffeine. This patented ingredient works with PurCaf to release caffeine into the bloodstream for hours, providing long-lasting energy benefits.

Using Kaged Mindset

As an experienced nootropics user who has primarily tried capsule formats, I was pleased to try out Kaged Mindset, a nootropic drink that only requires mixing with water. What immediately caught my attention was the extensive range of ingredients that the product boasted, including a myriad of essential minerals and vitamins that can serve as a replacement for standard multivitamin supplements.

Upon receiving the product bundle, I was impressed by the quality of the packaging and bottle that was included. While not everyone may have access to or desire the bundle, it was a definite highlight for me.

When testing the non-caffeinated Mindset, I was pleasantly surprised by its rapid effects. Unlike many other nootropics that may take several days or weeks to demonstrate any noticeable benefits, Mindset had an almost instantaneous impact, with effects noticeable within 30 minutes. On the second day, I tried the Mindset + Caffeine version, which had an even more significant impact, with a duration of around 3-4 hours of heightened alertness and focus.

This substantial effect could be attributed to the slow-release caffeine, which prevented any jitteriness or crashes typically associated with caffeine consumption. While I do not consume coffee, I regularly consume tea and the occasional pre-workout, with a caffeine intake typically below 100mg. However, the 150mg or more of caffeine in Mindset did not produce any adverse side effects.

While the caffeine played a crucial role in the effects, the other ingredients also appeared to be performing their intended functions, as I experienced similar benefits with the non-caffeinated version. Some ingredients may take several weeks to demonstrate their benefits fully, but they are likely working quietly in the background.

As someone who works primarily from home, I found mixing the powder with water to be an excellent and convenient way to consume Mindset. The orange mango flavor was tasty and had a well-mixed consistency. Although it may be more challenging to mix on the go, pre-mixing and consuming it while on the move is still possible.

I found the standard 1 scoop to be sufficient to sustain me throughout the day, with heightened concentration, focus, and productivity. While I cannot definitively comment on any memory boosts, I suspect that such benefits may become evident over months of using Mindset regularly.

In terms of pricing, Mindset is competitively priced and even more affordable with our discount code.

In Conclusion

Kaged has certainly nailed it with their Mindset nootropic supplement. I found the caffeinated variant to be particularly effective, although both variations yielded promising results. The sustainable energy and enhanced focus that it provides makes it an ideal choice for those who desire sharper cognitive functioning, be it professionals, students, gamers, writers or athletes.

Compared to other supplements on the market, it is reasonably priced for a month’s supply. One scoop of the standard dose should be sufficient for most users, and only a double scoop is required for moments that demand hyperfocus.

Overall, I am thoroughly impressed with Kaged Mindset, and it is sure to be a mainstay in my nootropic arsenal.

alpha brain

Alpha Brain Review

alpha brain
Unlock your mental potential with Alpha Brain – the premium nootropic supplement designed to enhance focus, memory, and cognitive performance.

About The Brand

If you’re on the hunt for brain-boosting supplements, you may come across Onnit. Founded in 2011 by Aubrey Marcus, who holds a background in ancient philosophy and athletic history, Onnit strives to help people reach their fullest potential. Today, the company is an influential player in the health and wellness industry, boasting an impressive selection of over 250 products. Among their top sellers are clinically-researched dietary supplements, earth-grown foods, apparel, and non-traditional fitness equipment. Their most popular nootropic, Alpha Brain, has been dominating the market since its debut in 2011.

So, What Exactly Is Onnit Alpha Brain?

This particular nootropic is formulated with natural ingredients that are said to support cognitive function by promoting alpha wave and neurotransmitter production. This, in turn, enhances cognitive performance. Unlike many of its competitors, Alpha Brain has scientific research backing up its effectiveness, and it has even been endorsed by prominent athletes and celebrities, including Joe Rogan. To date, over one million bottles have been sold.

But Does It Really Work?

In theory, Alpha Brain is believed to help users enter a “zone” by stimulating alpha brain waves and neurotransmitter production. The brain produces alpha waves during periods of relaxation and calm, which is why many individuals experience these waves during stress-relieving activities such as meditation.

While anecdotal evidence is compelling, there is also clinical research supporting Alpha Brain’s use. In a six-week, placebo-controlled study conducted in 2016, Alpha Brain was given to 63 individuals aged 18-35. The study found that Alpha Brain supplementation resulted in significant improvements in verbal recall and cognitive function, compared to the placebo. Additionally, participants showed a higher frequency of alpha waves, which is thought to indicate a healthy brain environment.

However, it’s important to note that the study was funded by the company, which can introduce sponsorship bias. In contrast, a 2018 study on 43 US soldiers found no significant improvement in marksmanship performance between the soldiers who received Alpha Brain and those who received the placebo.

Overall, while there is some evidence to suggest that Alpha Brain may be effective, further studies are needed to conclusively prove its benefits.

Alpha Brain Ingredients

Alpha Brain is made up of three main proprietary blends to support the production of alpha waves and neurotransmitters in your brain. Though studies are limited, there is research to support its use as a nootropic. 

The product is made with natural ingredients, stimulant-free, gluten-free, and third-party tested for safety. If you’re looking for a high-quality nootropic, Alpha Brain may be a good choice.

Alpha Brain is made of ingredients that work together to support cognitive performance, improve focus, memory, and mental processing. 

Together, these ingredients may help build an environment where our brain can function at its best, thus promoting mental clarity and reducing brain fog.

Although Alpha Brain is clinically proven to benefit its users, research is still limited.  It is also made up of proprietary blends, resulting in a lack of ingredient transparency.

Most of the solid research supporting the use of many of Alpha Brain’s ingredients targets the elderly population. Since the quantities of ingredients are not displayed, we do not know if the ingredients are present in adequate amounts to provide benefits similar to those studied.

Alpha Brain is third-party tested by the Banned Substances Control Group (BSCG) to ensure the product is free of any banned or controlled ingredients. However, third-party testing results are not publicly available on their website at this time.

Let’s take a look at what’s inside of Alpha Brain.

The Onnit Flow Blend is a carefully formulated supplement that aims to enhance alpha brain wave production. Let’s take a closer look at the individual ingredients that make up this blend and their potential effects.

L-Tyrosine: A Non-Essential Amino Acid

L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid commonly found in brain-boosting supplements. It aids in the production of neurotransmitters, which facilitate communication between nerve cells in the body. According to a 2015 review, tyrosine can improve cognitive performance during short-term periods of stress, although its effectiveness varies from person to person.

L-Theanine: An Anxiolytic Amino Acid

L-Theanine is a non-essential amino acid that has been used as an anxiolytic to reduce anxiety. Studies suggest that individuals with high anxiety levels may benefit from 200mg of L-theanine.

Oat Straw Extract: Improving Cognitive Abilities

Oat straw extract, derived from an unripened Sativa plant, is believed to improve cognitive abilities. One study found that 1,600mg of oat herb extract improved attention and concentration. However, the study used a much larger quantity than what is present in Alpha Brain, and the participants had pre-existing cognitive delays.

Phosphatidylserine: Increasing Cognitive Function

Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that research suggests may increase cognitive function before exercise.

Cat’s Claw Extract (350mg): Promoting Cellular Integrity

Cat’s claw is an extract from the bark of a vine found in the Amazon rainforest. Onnit claims that it promotes cellular integrity, but there is currently no compelling evidence to support any health benefits associated with cat’s claw.

Onnit Focus Blend (240mg): Achieving Optimal Acetylcholine Levels

The Onnit Focus Blend is designed to achieve optimal acetylcholine levels, which control muscle cells and nerves. Let’s explore the ingredients that make up this blend:

Alpha-GPC: Supporting Acetylcholine Function

Alpha-GPC supports the function of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter commonly used to improve cognitive functions and mental performance. Ongoing research suggests Alpha-GPC’s use in Alzheimer’s patients, but more research is needed to prove its effectiveness in healthy individuals.

Bacopa Extract (100mg): Improving Brain Functions

Bacopa is an herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to treat Alzheimer’s disease and improve brain functions. One six-week, randomized placebo-controlled trial found that supplementation of 150mg of Bacopa monnieri extract in medical students led to significant improvements in cognition and memory.

Toothed Clubmoss (Huperzia Serrata, 400mg): Preventing the Breakdown of Acetylcholine

Toothed clubmoss, a Chinese herb commonly used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, may prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine. Research shows it may improve cognitive function in those with Alzheimer’s.

Onnit Fuel Blend (60mg): Promoting Optimal Communication in the Nervous System

The Onnit Fuel Blend is formulated to promote optimal communication throughout your nervous system and maintain a healthy brain environment to optimize neural communication. Let’s take a closer look at the ingredients:

L-Leucine: Repairing Muscle and Synthesizing Protein

L-Leucine is a branched-chain amino acid that helps the body synthesize protein and repair muscle. Most research to date is related to its role in athletic performance.

Pterostilbene: Antioxidant Properties

Pterostilbene is a compound that belongs to the stilbene family, similar to resveratrol. It has been found to have antioxidant properties that may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. However, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of pterostilbene in promoting brain health.

Vitamin B6: Neurotransmitter Synthesis

Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a vital role in brain development and function. It is a cofactor in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and GABA. Adequate levels of vitamin B6 are necessary for maintaining optimal brain health and cognitive function.

The Onnit Flow Blend, Focus Blend, and Fuel Blend contain a variety of ingredients that have been linked to potential cognitive benefits. However, while some of the ingredients have shown promise in improving cognitive function and brain health, more research is needed to determine their effectiveness in healthy individuals. It’s important to remember that supplements are not a replacement for a healthy diet and lifestyle, and it’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional before adding any new supplements to your routine.

Alpha Brain: Benefits, Dosage, and Side Effects

Alpha Brain is a dietary supplement that claims to provide users with laser focus, razor-sharp clarity, and improved cognitive function. According to Onnit, the manufacturer of Alpha Brain, the product can help users have quicker reaction times, think clear under stress, focus on difficult tasks, and remember names and places. However, more research is needed to verify these health claims.


The recommended dosage for Alpha Brain is two capsules per day, taken with a light meal. Users can also purchase pre-dosed instant packages of the nootropic drink mix, which are mixed with 8 oz of cold water. It’s important to consult with a physician before taking any dietary supplement, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, have a history of medical conditions, or are currently taking any medications.

Side Effects

Alpha Brain is generally safe, but users may experience minor side effects associated with general nootropic use, such as nausea, headaches, insomnia, and gastrointestinal distress. If you experience any adverse effects, discontinue use and consult with a physician.

Where Can You Purchase Alpha Brain?

Alpha Brain can be acquired via their official website or through various supplement stores and online retailers, such as Amazon. If you’re looking to qualify for a free trial or money-back guarantee, purchasing directly from their website is recommended.

Final Considerations

If you’re searching for a high-quality, stimulant-free nootropic, Alpha Brain is worth considering, especially if you’re caffeine-sensitive or want to avoid jitters. While most of the ingredients have supporting research, more evidence is needed to verify cognitive benefits. Presently, research has been primarily conducted on elderly patients with cognitive impairment.

Ultimately, each user may have a unique experience with dietary supplements, including Alpha Brain. However, the product seems safe for the general population, and if you’re inclined to purchase a nootropic supplement, Alpha Brain may be worth a try. With ten years on the market, it has evidence to support its use.

Nevertheless, it’s always wise to consult with a medical professional before starting any dietary supplement.

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Alternative Medicine And Sleep Apnea

alternative medicine practitioner working on the sleep apnea patient
Sleep apnea symptoms can be reduced with several home remedies and lifestyle adjustments. Traditional remedies, on the other hand, should not be overlooked.

Quackery is thriving in a new field of medicine. People’s fears and hopes are often exploited by unscrupulous individuals. “Alternative” medical professionals are already claiming miracle cures when the miracle you might need is surgery for sleep apnea.

Sleep Apnea: Who Can Diagnose It?

Let’s not forget this. An overnight sleep test is required to diagnose sleep apnea accurately. It must be done according to established procedures. A well-trained and accredited sleep specialist should evaluate the results and recommend treatment.

An alert doctor might suspect that you have sleep apnea. They will examine you and ask you whether you snore. A sleep test is required to determine the exact diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment.

Alternative Medicines for Sleep Apnea can be used to treat or cure it.

Alternative medicine can’t treat or cure sleep disordered breathing. Sleep apnea is not a cure. Although there is an effective treatment for sleep apnea, it is not permanent. Sleep apnea can be a complex disorder. The right treatment depends on many factors. One or more of these is the only effective treatment for sleep apnea.

Some people may experience weight loss. Some medications may be prescribed for certain people. Some people may need certain surgeries. A dental appliance for some people

Rules of Thumb for Quack Detection

Quacks can appeal to our natural desire to find a quick cure. Mr. Chambers was not interested in using a CPAP machine to sleep. Chambers was disappointed that the initial CPAP treatment didn’t work as well as he expected.

He was looking for a simple solution. He was swayed by a quack. How do you identify a quack? Who are you to believe? Is it really important if you feel better than Mr. It does matter if, like Mr., It does matter for two reasons:

  • Quacky can be expensive. Quack remedies can be expensive if you have a tight budget.
  • Quackery can cause death, directly or indirectly through the use of a dangerous product. Here are some guidelines to help you avoid quackery and the associated risks.
  • Be skeptical. Be skeptical of anything that sounds too good to be true.
  • Check for the credentials of the person making the claims. Is he able to document any training that qualifies him/her to give medical advice?
  • Ask questions about the research. Are the results repeated and verified by other researchers? Are the results peer-reviewed and published in respected medical journals by other scientists?
  • Follow the money. Is it a good idea to spend money on this product? Is it reasonable or are you being offered a $50 dime-store item? These are the rules of thumb. How does magnetism stand up to them?
  • It seems too good to be true, that small magnetic fields could eliminate the effects of sleep apnea. Yes.
  • Does the “authority” who sells this theory have any medical credentials? Is the research valid?

Alternative Medicine: What It Can and Can’t Do

Except for a few cases, most alternative medical treatments are safe and effective, as long as they are not used to replace good primary care. You should be scientific if you are interested in trying alternative methods. Talk to your doctor about your ideas, then do a controlled experiment. Then, return to the sleep laboratory and see if there is a significant improvement in your sleep apnea.

Two very bad decisions

It is a bad idea to discontinue using the sleep treatment that your doctor prescribed and try a different one. You can experiment with other treatments, provided they aren’t harmful. However, you should still use your CPAP device at all times. Your sleep apnea will return if you stop using CPAP. It will get worse.

A second dangerous decision is to choose an alternative practitioner for your primary or sole doctor. Many alternative doctors have little medical training. If they fail to properly treat a serious condition (diabetes or cancer), it could prove fatal. You should also seek out alternative treatments if you are forced to.

Perhaps this is the cure.

The cure for sleep apnea might be found in an obscure alternative medical treatment. Many scientific discoveries have been made outside of the traditional medical establishment. The medical establishment is slow to accept new ideas. Unconventional treatments are treated with suspicion and skepticism and are often rejected by the medical community.

It takes a long time to incorporate a new concept in mainstream medicine. This is evident in the case of sleep disorders medicine. Although sleep disorders research has been ongoing for over 40 years, it is only now that the subject of sleep disorders medicine can be taught in medical schools. This skepticism protects the public against falsehoods.

The peer review and scientific method must be used to validate new medicine. This prevents the misuse and exploitation by unscrupulous companies, incompetent scientists, and personal greed. It is not perfect.

There are some bad scientific articles in medical journals. Sometimes, good treatments take longer to reach patients than they should. Although progress seems slow, there are still significant advances being made. When the review process fails, we are reminded how important it is to be skeptical and cautious.

Pregnant women were recommended thalidomide in 1950 to treat morning sickness. It was not well tested and caused severe birth defects. The medical community has not heard of a cure for sleep apnea, and even if it exists, it hasn’t had the chance to test it scientifically. Prudence suggests we continue to use our CPAP units, and that we remain patient and skeptical.


  • Guidelines for diagnosing medical quackery are asking for certificates.
  • Find out who the profits are and whether the service or product is worth the investment.
  • Find out if the research was conducted using a scientific method.
  • If you are interested in other therapies, your CPAP should be used.
  • Don’t use an alternative practitioner as your primary or sole physician.
doctor writing word sleep apnea with marker medical concept

How To Find Good Sleep Specialist To Treat Sleep Apnea

sleep apnea specialist in his office facing the patient
Sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and insomnia can all be diagnosed and treated by a sleep specialist.

It is important to find a certified sleep specialist, as sleep disorder medicine is relatively new, and very few doctors have been trained in it. According to a survey, 20 minutes was the average time spent teaching sleep medicine, and sleep apnea surgery in medical schools.

Your doctor might want to refer you to someone who isn’t board-certified in sleep medicine, or doesn’t practice it full time because of financial arrangements and managed care. Check to see if your plan is “capitated”.

This means that each time your doctor orders a test, it costs the clinic money. Capitated settings are more likely to deny you care or offer lower quality or unproven services. Although the doctor may not be conscious of trying to save money, they may be too eager to believe that some service is “cheaper” or “just as good.”

But do you really want to be the exception? Most established specialties, such as pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, otolaryngology psychiatry, and so on, have their own departments in hospitals and medical schools. Specialists in these fields teach medical students, who learn how to diagnose and treat illnesses. Doctors can spend many years in residency programs after graduation to perfect their skills in the chosen specialty.

However, there are very few schools that offer programs or courses in sleep disorders medicine. Therefore, only a few doctors are qualified to diagnose and treat sleep disorders. Early sleep medicine specialists created a professional organization in order to set the standard for professionalism in this field. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (www.aasmnet.org), today establishes standards for evaluation and treatment of sleeping disorders and gives accreditation to sleep disorder centers.

The American Board of Sleep Medicine certifies and tests sleep medicine specialists. The field of sleep disorders medicine is expanding rapidly. The AASM hopes that within a few years, all major medical schools will offer programs on sleep disorders. The public will need to be careful to find a qualified sleep specialist until systematic sleep medicine training is integrated into the medical school curriculum.

Qualifications for a Sleep Specialist

The AASM defines a sleep specialist to be “a doctor who is. . . AASM members include more than 6,000 doctors, researchers, and other health care, professionals.

Find a Board Certified Sleep Specialist

Specialists in sleep medicine are doctors who have completed medical school to continue their studies and then enrolled in graduate courses or fellowship programs. The American Board of Sleep Medicine (ABSM) certifies a physician to be a sleep specialist.

He is now a board-certified sleep specialist (BCSS). The American Board of Sleep Medicine has a list of certified sleep specialists that you can find online at www.absm.org. You can also call the American Board of Sleep Medicine (507 287-9819) to inquire if a specific doctor is certified in sleep medicine.

Many doctors who have been trained in sleep medicine are not certified. They may still be knowledgeable about sleep disorders. As with any medical specialty, board certification in sleep medicine ensures that you, the patient, have received specific training and are qualified to perform sleep testing and interpret the results. A sleep study at an accredited clinic is a must before you begin a treatment program. This is especially true if surgery is involved.

Standards for Accredited Sleep Centers

An AASM-accredited sleep center is one that meets the requirements. There were over 1,000 accredited laboratories and sleep centers in the United States as of summer 2007. There were also thousands of accredited sleep laboratories that are not recognized by the AASM. Although no one knows how many of these sleep laboratories are accredited, the AASM has received thousands upon thousands of inquiries from sleep laboratories seeking information on accreditation.

Although a non-accredited laboratory might be reputable, you don’t have the ability to verify this. Your family physician may not be familiar with all aspects of quality sleep medicine and may refer you to someone from his group.

There is a wide variety of quality, from reputable sleep labs to those on the street. The AASM does not have the resources, staff, or mandate to “police the whole field of sleep medicine beyond its membership. Until now, however, there has been no other agency or organization that is monitoring the quality of the sleep testing performed in non-AASM-accredited labs.

Find a Accredited Sleep Center

You can be a responsible consumer and choose an AASM-accredited sleep center if you are looking for assurances of professionalism in this new field. The Internet allows you to find accredited centers for sleep disorders in your state at www.aasmnet.org. Click on Patients and Public then click on Find a Sleep Center. There are two types of accreditation standards: specialty laboratories and full-service centers.

All-Service Sleep Centers

Accreditation for a full-service center for sleep disorders ensures that it can deal with all types of sleep disorders professionally. These are the AASM’s primary requirements for a full-service sleep center.

  • The center must have an ABSM-accredited medical polysomnographer (MD) or Ph.D. on staff to interpret and read the sleep recordings.
  • The center must have a full-time doctor who is an expert in sleep physiology. It must be able to provide sleep testing services by certified technicians. It is a good idea to have at minimum one registered polysomnographic technologist in a sleep center.
  • Each patient must have their own private room with sound, light, and temperature control. They also need easy communication with the attendant.
  • All facilities, procedures, and patient care must conform to the standards of the ABSM. A two-member accreditation committee must inspect the sleep center every five years to ensure that it is not disqualified.

Laboratories of Specialty

While the standards for specialty laboratories are similar, they are tailored to sleep testing roles. The majority of specialty laboratories deal with pulmonary medicine (breathing problems), and their diagnostic testing is primarily for sleep apnea. A specialty laboratory must have at minimum one pulmonary specialist.

  • Staff must have knowledge about the procedures and practices of sleep disorders medicine.
  • All aspects of patient care, including the physical environment, facilities, testing procedures, and patient care, must be in line with ABSM standards.

What to do if you are denied referral to a qualified sleep specialist or laboratory

It is important to be aware of these guidelines when you are receiving a denial, delay, or other administrative notice regarding your health care.

  • First, if you have an urgent need or it is an emergency, you should immediately seek the treatment you require and not delay in seeking referrals or insurance coverage.
  • Second, remain calm. You’re not the only one. Healthcare is complex and large. It can sometimes take patience to navigate the healthcare system.
  • Third, continue calling your insurance company, follow up with their processes, and keep track of names, claim numbers, and other details.

The following guidelines apply to sleep disorders. Sleep problems are not usually life-threatening. However, if you have an urgent need for medical attention, it is a good idea to get it. When the staff at the office ask for billing information or a referral, tell them about the situation and promise to follow up. Take all information that you can, such as your cards and health insurance, doctor visits information, bills, and other pertinent information. Tell the insurance company about your situation as soon as you can.

Keep the name of the person with whom you spoke. It may not seem like much, but it could make a difference in the future. Prepare to tell your story to many people. Before you start, a speakerphone or another hands-free phone is a good investment.

It’s not uncommon to spend a lot of time on your phone. Be persistent. Be persistent if you don’t get the answer you want. Sometimes, your primary care physician can help you appeal. Your doctor might be able to write a letter for you or can send your medical records to your insurer.

Do not give up and just go anywhere!

If appeals fail, you can write to your state’s insurance commissioner. You can find their number by calling the government information number in your state capital. Each state has an office or individual who supervises insurance plans and HMOs. Insurance commissioners are keen to identify these kinds of issues due to well-publicized cases of abuse.

How to Find the nearest Accredited Sleep Center or Sleep Specialist

A booklet with a list of accredited American sleep centers will be mailed by the AASM. The following address is where you can write to the AASM. Include a large, self-addressed, stamped envelope.

  • American Academy of Sleep Medicine
  • 1610 14th Street NW Suite 300
  • Rochester MN 55901-2200
  • (507) 287-6006
  • www.aasmnet.org
  • American Board of Sleep Medicine
  • (507) 287-9819
  • www.absm.org
middle age asian man wearing cpap headgear during his sleep

How Sleep Apnea Affects Seniors

senior sleep apnea patient
Sleep apnea prevalence increases with age, however the disorder’s severity, morbidity, and death decreases.
  • Sleep patterns in older people are more irregular and lighter.
  • Sleep disturbances can be caused by movement disorders, sleep apnea, and pain.
  • Schedule a sleep study if you suspect that you may have sleep apnea.
  • A good sleep routine can improve your quality of sleep.
  • Seniors can benefit from exposure to the morning light (outdoors or indoors with an LED box).
  • This regulates the sleep-wake cycle and helps them sleep thru the nite.

It is common for older people to sleep less at night than younger ones. This assumption is often accompanied by the belief that older people don’t require as much sleep. However, both assumptions can be questioned. People over 50 get 7 hours sleep per night, whereas people between 19 and 30 have 8 hours.

This may be partly due to the fact that older people wake up earlier in the mornings and because they are more likely to get up at night. But, it is possible that older people take more frequent daytime naps than younger people.

This means that an older person may get 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour time period, which could be comparable to a younger person. The quality of older people’s sleep isn’t as good as that of younger people.

You can see that sleep quality is affected by the amount of wakefulness during the night. The sleep of older people is less dense and fragmented due to wakefulness than that of younger people. Older people experience less deep sleep. Although they get more REM sleep than younger people, it is less intense.

Napping may be an option for older people to make up for the sleep they have lost over the night. Some people may find that naps can make up the sleep loss, but they don’t make up the quality of their sleep at night. Naps may actually make the problem worse in some cases. They can make the person feel less tired at night or confuse their internal clock. It is unclear what the difference in sleep between older and younger people means. It is not known why deep sleep is necessary and REM sleep is important. Therefore, the reason for the decline in these stages with age remains a mystery.

Myths About Aging and Sleep

Most older adults are in good health and complain about sleeping disturbances very little. Although their sleep is less consistent than when they were younger they don’t seem to be too bothered. Some older adults have severe sleep problems. Some myths about sleeping and aging may discourage them from seeking help.

Being tired is not a sign of aging. Don’t believe that feeling sleepy during the day means you are old. You may have a sleep disorder that can be treated if you feel tired and unable to concentrate for more than an hour. Poor or disturbed sleep is not normal. Don’t believe excuses that poor or disturbed nighttime sleep is normal. Do not be discouraged if you feel your quality of life has been affected by sleep problems.

Why Older Adults Have Trouble Sleeping

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea can be a serious condition that can disrupt the sleep of elderly people. According to studies, sleep apnea was reported in up to 30% of healthy older adults. It is likely caused by the progressive loss of muscle tone in the upper airway, which occurs with age. Sleep apnea in older adults is often mild to moderate.

It is often not severe enough or barely severe enough to be considered clinical sleep apnea. This means that there are fewer than five events of apnea lasting more than 10 seconds per hour or 30 events in a single night.

A mild case of sleep apnea in healthy older adults is not usually a sign that they need treatment. As long as they are well-rested, it seems the consensus is that this level is normal. But, sleep apnea symptoms should not be overlooked. Healthy seniors should not be afflicted by drowsiness or loss of mental alertness.

They must strive to stay as active and alert as possible. Apnea episodes can cause sleep fragmentation and a decrease of oxygen in the blood. This can lead to daytime drowsiness or loss of alertness. Daytime drowsiness is less common in seniors with restless legs or other sleep disorders like apnea.

Sleep apnea could be the cause of daytime drowsiness in seniors. You may contact a sleep center if you suspect that your sleep is being disturbed by apnea. If you have trouble sleeping at night and your partner is snoring, somnoplasty might be an option..

Leg Movements During Sleep

About 40% of older adults experience involuntary movements of the legs during sleep. Restless legs syndrome is a condition where a person feels uncomfortable or achy and has a strong urge to move their legs. This can make it difficult to fall asleep. These are repetitive kicking movements that occur during sleep.

They are called nocturnal myoclonus (periodic leg movements). They may wake the sleeper but are often more disruptive for the bedmate. Talk to a sleep specialist if you or your partner experience any of these disorders.

Medical Problems and Depression

Older adults who are less healthy may experience sleep problems such as pain from arthritis, respiratory issues, leg cramps, and frequent urination. Another condition that can impact sleep is depression. Depression symptoms can be attributed to “just growing old”.

They include insomnia, pessimism, loss of interest, decreased self-esteem, poor sexual function, increased health problems such as constipation and back pain, abdominal pain, headaches, social withdrawal, decreased appetite, and weight loss.

These symptoms are not inevitable with aging. These symptoms are rare in healthy older adults. If you have symptoms like poor sleep or other signs of depression, then it is important to treat the depression and not just the symptoms. As some treatments can cause sleep problems, it is better to consult a sleep specialist before treating medical issues or depression.

A Good Night’s Rest

One of the most common complaints about older adults is their inability to sleep well. This is a common problem that people have become concerned about. The worry of not getting enough sleep can keep them awake at night. Here are some things you can do if you’re a senior experiencing frequent nighttime awakenings and sleepiness.

Good sleep hygiene is a way to make your day more pleasant. Regular meals are a must. b. Get more exercise each day, but don’t do it right before bed. c. Get outside every morning. To regulate your sleep-wake cycle, your biological clock requires light signals every day. Indoor lighting is too dim to be effective. Even on cloudy days, morning light can help to reset your sleep-wake rhythm and improve your sleep quality.

These are often more due to boredom than sleepiness. Instead of snoring, find something to do. e. Create evening activities with friends, or alone. Enjoy a relaxing evening. You should limit your intake of caffeine (coffee and tea, cocoa, cocoa, and cola), and drink moderate amounts of alcohol (alcohol interferes with sleep).

You will feel less need to urinate at night if you limit your intake of fluid after 7 p.m. Get out of bed at a specific time every morning, such as 6:30 or 7 AM. I. Relaxation techniques can be used to ease tension and worries that might keep you awake at night.

You can rest assured that your nighttime awakenings may be normal and that you are getting enough sleep. This information alone can help you relax and stop worrying about whether or not you are getting enough sleep.

This knowledge will allow you to sleep better. These suggestions may not be effective. You should seek professional help. These suggestions should be tried for several weeks in a controlled manner. If they fail to work, you should consult your doctor. If you are still having trouble sleeping, your doctor may refer you to a sleep clinic.

Talk to a sleep specialist if you suspect that you may have a medical condition that is interfering with your ability to sleep. Sometimes, the treatment of one medical condition may not be the same as the treatment of another.

Some drugs that are prescribed for heart conditions can make sleep apnea worse. Sleeping pills, like alcohol, almost always make sleep apnea worse. Side effects of some antidepressants and barbiturates can have a negative impact on sleep.

Your family doctor may not be as familiar with these sleep effects, so a sleep specialist will likely know more. Together, they can find the best way to improve your sleep. The sleep specialist might recommend sleep apnea surgery if your sleep apnea is severe or moderately serious. The severity and type of your apnea will determine the treatment you need.


  • Many older people get the same amount of sleep per night as young people.
  • The quality of older adults’ sleep may be less than that of younger people. This is because it is more disturbed by prolonged periods of wakefulness.
  • Sleep apnea and leg movement syndromes can all interfere with seniors’ sleep.
  • If you feel tired or your quality of living is declining, seek help.
  • For testing and an interview, visit an accredited sleep center.
  • A program of good sleep hygiene can often solve mild sleep problems.
woman sleeping with anti snoring mask

How Sleep Apnea Affects Women

woman diagnosed with sleep apnea disorder
While snoring, gasping, and witnessing apneas are all common indications of sleep apnea in men, the signs and symptoms in women are slightly different.

Although women’s sleep has only been studied since the 1990s there is much more to be learned. It is clear that women’s sleeping patterns are more complex than those of men. This is due to the physiological changes that begin with puberty, continue throughout life, including pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, and menstruation.

One theory suggests that evolution may have favored women’s ability to alternate between waking up quickly to care for their infants and then grabbing a brief, deep, “power” sleep before being awakened for the next round of infant care. Fatigue and insomnia are more common in women than in men.

Insomnia is three to four times more common in women. Variations in women’s sleep patterns and ability to stay asleep are due to hormonal fluctuations. Premenstrual women are more likely to experience insomnia and fragmented sleep.

In the postmenstrual phase, however, falling asleep is usually easier. Women who have gone through menopause or older men may have a shorter sleep time and experience a lighter sleep cycle. Hot flashes can cause sleep disruptions in women during their hormonal transition years.

Hot flashes can cause daytime fatigue in women, which can have negative consequences for overall health. The effects of pregnancy on sleep are devastating. After childbirth, a woman may not experience the same quality of sleep she had before. Women are more likely to experience periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Sleep Apnea looks different in women

Sleep apnea has been a common condition in men for many years. It was 10 times more common than it was in women. The ratio of men and women with sleep apnea was closer to three to 1. 28 percent of middle-aged females snore regularly, compared to 44 percent of men. The rate of sleep apnea triples after menopause.

No longer is sleep apnea confined to men. Women may not experience the same symptoms of sleep apnea as men, which is why it has been so underdiagnosed in women. Men tend to snore loudly, and they have apneas that go on and off throughout the night. One in four women also snore, but this is usually limited to rapid eye movement (REM).

Women may also experience a quiet form of sleep apnea known as upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). UARS can be more subtle than snoring but has the same long-term effects as obstructive sleeping apnea.

UARS causes a struggle to breathe, disrupts sleep, and lowers oxygen levels. UARS can be treated with continuous positive pressure (CPAP) just like obstructive sleeping apnea. UARS and sleep apnea may lead to hypertension and diabetes.

Women, Obesity and Sleep Apnea

Overweight adults account for one-third of all adults. Obese women are more likely than others to suffer from sleep apnea and other health risks associated with excess weight. The metabolic syndrome is a deadly mix of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol that can lead to high mortality rates. It should be addressed from all angles.

Obstructive sleep apnea is a contributing factor to metabolic disorder. Treatment of sleep apnea must be included in a treatment plan that focuses on weight management, diabetes control, blood pressure, cholesterol, controlling blood pressure and maybe even sleep apnea surgery. How can you determine if you are obese?

Anyone with a BMI greater than 25 is considered obese according to the standard Body Mass Index (BMI). Your waist measurement should be less than 4 inches wider than your hips. This is called “central” obesity. It is more dangerous than the hips and thighs pattern of excess weight. You or someone you love falls into one of these categories.

It is a good idea to find out if you are suffering from sleep apnea. Ask your doctor to refer you to wellness programs that focus on weight management and lowering your cardiovascular risk. These programs are offered by most medical centers, and often insurance will cover them.

Pregnancy can be complicated by sleep apnea

Women often experience sleep apnea during pregnancy. About 25% of pregnant women experience sleep apnea episodes, especially in the third trimester. It is possible to snore lightly, but it is not usually a problem.

Heavy snoring can increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Snoring, in particular, can increase your chances of preeclampsia and hypertension.

The fetus’ growth can be impeded by excessive snoring from the mother. A visit to a specialist in sleep medicine is recommended if a woman is snoring during pregnancy or if her breathing becomes difficult. Pre- prescriptions can be made for CPAP therapy during pregnancy and it can be stopped if the baby is born.

Menopause Is More Common for Sleep Apnea

Hot flashes may not be enough to bother you, but menopausal women might have sleep apnea. After menopause, the chances of developing sleep apnea increase by three times. Normal women with an average weight can experience sleep apnea symptoms.

They may wake up at night and feel fatigued, coughing, or choking. Half of the women complain about their sleep after and during menopause. These sleep problems were once considered normal after menopause.

Under the assumption that low or fluctuating hormones cause sleep problems, hormone replacement therapy was prescribed. We now know that hormone replacement therapy does not reduce hot flashes or other sleep problems.

As symptoms of sleep disturbances after menopause, you should take them seriously as they could be signs of sleep apnea. A sleep study can help you determine if there are any issues. A researcher who studies women’s sleep cautions doctors that menopausal women should take the same seriousness to signs and symptoms that could normally prompt a complete sleep evaluation. Don’t wait for your family doctor or specialist to recommend a sleep study. They may not even think of it.


  • While women are more likely to experience insomnia than men, they are about one-third less likely to suffer from sleep apnea. After menopause, sleep apnea is more common.
  • Obesity and weight gain increase the severity of sleep apnea.
  • Sleep apnea is often associated with metabolic syndrome (obesity and diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol). This should be treated using CPAP and management weight, diabetes, and cholesterol.
  • Sleep apnea is when you wake up coughing, choking, or stopping breathing while you sleep. You should schedule a sleep study.
indoor shot hesitant bearded man with excess weight shrugs shoulders stands unaware has thick beard big beer belly dressed yellow t shirt round spectacles faces difficult choice

Relationship Between Obesity And Sleep Apnea

concept of obesity and sleep apnea
Obesity is perhaps the most significant risk factor for sleep apnea. Several cross-sectional studies have revealed a link between obesity and sleep apnea.
  • One in three adults is obese.
  • Obesity can increase the chances of developing an obstructive sleep disorder.
  • Metabolic Syndrome is a deadly combination of sleep apnea and hypertension.
  • Diabetes, obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and hypertension.
  • Weight management and treatment of sleep apnea are key to success in overcoming metabolic syndrome.

Sleep apnea is a common condition in overweight people. You don’t need to be overweight to experience sleep apnea. However, some people who are obese do not suffer from it. However, the correlation between obesity & sleep apnea can be very strong. Obesity can be a serious medical problem.

Obesity isn’t about reducing weight or changing your clothes size. Obesity and sleep apnea both contribute to a host of medical conditions that can lead to worsening of your health.

Why should you care if your obesity is a problem? The Sinking Spiral

Three reasons why obesity and sleep apnea often go hand-in-hand are: Fat deposits build up in the tissues of the neck and cause obesity. This can cause constriction of your airway, which can lead to sleep apnea and snoring. Obese people are more likely to have excess fat tissue in their abdomen, which can cause abnormal loading and interfere with normal breathing. A sinking spiral develops. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that causes sleep to be interrupted. It results in poor quality sleep at night and daytime sleepiness.

Recurrent awakenings can stress the sympathetic nervous system. Hypertension is caused by this and extra weight. As the body loses its ability to handle carbohydrates, it can slip into insulin resistance. This is adult-onset diabetes. Continued weight gain. The levels of cholesterol rise and cardiovascular disease take its toll. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which is a result of sleep apnea, also increases. A person becomes less active, consumes less energy, and is more likely to have a stroke or heart attack. Breaking the cycle is key. This can be achieved by weight loss, but it’s extremely difficult to lose weight and maintain it in the face of all the other obstacles. If sleep apnea remains untreated, weight loss can be difficult or impossible. The spiral can be stopped by treating sleep apnea. This will allow you to regain your total good health.

How do you know if you’re obese?

Waist circumference is the simplest indicator of central obesity. Central obesity is defined as a waist measurement greater than 40 inches for men and 34 inches for women. Central obesity can lead to serious medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, and hypertension. Extra weight on the hips and thighs is not a concern.

You can also measure your hips and waist by comparing them. You have central obesity if your hips and waist measurements are less than 4 inches. The Body Mass Index (BMI), a more accurate measure of obesity, is shown on page 105. The Body Mass Index is calculated simply by multiplying body weight by the square root of your height. You can find your precise BMI at the following National Institutes of Health website, by typing in your height and weight: www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm.

The Metabolic Syndrome, Sleep Apnea and the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome is a group of disorders that can often be combined and feed off each other, leading to a downward spiral in health. These conditions include:

  • Adult-onset Diabetes (also known as type 2)
  • Insulin resistance (the body doesn’t use insulin properly)
  • Central Obesity (extra weight is concentrated on the abdomen)
  • High blood pressure (higher than 140/90mm Hg)
  • High cholesterol.

A person with three or more of these conditions is called the Metabolic Syndrome. The Metabolic Syndrome also includes sleep apnea.

This is because sleep apnea can be treated in people with Metabolic Syndrome to improve insulin use, lower blood pressure, or improve cholesterol. The Metabolic Syndrome, if not treated, can lead to permanent damage to the kidneys, blood circulation, eyes, and brain. . . and premature death. Obese people should find out if they have sleep apnea and get it treated. CPAP removes obstructive apnea. This allows for more restful sleep, better blood oxygen levels, and higher metabolism, which can boost one’s energy level. This can help with weight loss by increasing energy and activity.

The Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome or the “Pickwickian Syndrome”,

Pickwickian syndrome, which is a combination of severe sleep disorder and obesity, can be accompanied by hypoventilation or heart failure. This syndrome affects approximately 5 percent of patients with sleep apnea. William Wadd (a surgeon to King George III) connected obesity, lethargy, and breathing difficulties in 1816. Three patients were described by Wadd as “suffocated” by fat. A second medical man, A. Morison reported a case in 1889 of an obese and drowsy patient whose drowsiness increased after he lost weight.

The Pickwickian syndrome was first described by anyone in the 1950s. The first person to link obesity and breathing difficulties was a respiratory physiologist. He suggested that obesity causes extra strain on the respiratory system and that this can lead to sleepiness and lethargy. However, he did not connect sleep apnea to the whole picture. Gastaut, in 1965, demonstrated the link between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea. In 1910, Bramwell published the first medical term Pickwickian. He was reminded by one of his patient’s symptoms of the behavior and description of Joe in Dickens’s The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837). Joe was a “wonderfully obese boy” who would sleep so well that he could stand up. This idea might seem absurd to someone who is not familiar with Pickwickian Syndrome. This may seem strange to someone who has never experienced Pickwickian syndrome.

What is the Pickwickian Syndrome and How Can It Be Treated?

Pickwickian Syndrome results from multiple conditions: obesity, sleep apnea, and abnormal breathing patterns. A few people have a low breathing reflex that allows carbon dioxide (which is a waste gas) to build up in their blood. If the person’s breath is shallow, this tendency can get worse. Obesity can cause shallow breathing because it interferes with the function of the breathing muscles.

When a person lies down, this abnormally shallow breathing pattern can lead to symptoms such as frequent awakenings and sleep apnea. This vicious circle is known as the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome or Pickwickian Syndrome. Pickwickian Syndrome can develop in childhood and may also occur in older adults who were thin.

What are the effects of Pickwickian Syndrome?

Pickwickian Syndrome can cause the same problems as other types of sleep apnea. Pickwickian Syndrome causes fragmented sleep. Deep sleep and rapid eye movements (REM) are often reduced to almost zero. Because the person’s shallow breathing doesn’t take in enough oxygen at night, it can lead to a form of slow asphyxiation. It is not uncommon to experience excessive drowsiness in the daytime. Pickwickian Syndrome sufferers have a remarkable tendency not to fall asleep when there is any relaxation.

Pickwickian Syndrome sufferers often fall asleep while at work, driving, or in a conversation. Roberts recalls how he used to drive to work every day and then fall asleep in the parking lot. He would fall asleep in the parking lot, so his coworkers would find him and take him to his office. One Pickwickian doctor said that he fell asleep while examining a patient. His head was resting on the shoulder of the patient when he awoke. After falling asleep in a weekly game of poker, a Pickwickian business executive sought treatment. He had drawn a full house (kings over aces) and then fell asleep again.

Pickwickian Syndrome is closely linked to serious heart disease. Along with the risk of stroke, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, obesity is closely associated with the Pickwickian Syndrome. There are also risks of heart enlargement and arrhythmias that can be caused by sleep apnea. The rate of sudden death in obese people is high. Pickwickian Syndrome is a serious condition that can be life-threatening.

The Pickwickian Syndrome: How to Treat It

The most conservative treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), combined with weight loss, otherwise your doctor might recommend sleep apnea surgery. A temporary tracheostomy may be considered if CPAP fails to eliminate sleep apnea or low blood oxygen levels. There are mixed reports in the medical literature about weight loss’s effectiveness in relieving symptoms of this syndrome. It is possible that the individual’s apnea may improve if they lose more weight. There may be a threshold weight at which Pickwickian Syndrome symptoms can manifest. Weight improvement is possible below this point.

A good example is Mr. Roberts, who has seen a positive outcome with CPAP and weight loss. Pickwickian Syndrome patients who are treated this way may experience a complete “remission”. They can stop using CPAP and appear to be cured of sleep apnea. Gastric bypass, which is weight loss surgery, has been shown to be effective in treating Pickwickian Syndrome. It reduces sleep apnea to a minimum level and restores deep sleep and REM sleep. Gastric bypass surgery should not be considered a routine operation.


  • Obesity is a common complication in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Metabolic syndrome can be described as a combination of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. It is possible to treat sleep apnea.
  • The Pickwickian Syndrome refers to a type of sleep apnea that is caused by obesity and an abnormally shallow breathing mechanism. The Pickwickian Syndrome is characterized by:
    • Obesity
    • daytime drowsiness
    • falling asleep during routine activities
    • sleep apnea
    • Treatment options include CPAP and weight loss
close up couple lying bed white blanket

What Causes Sleep Apnea?

family member suffers from sleep apnea discomfort
During sleep, when the muscles of the neck and tongue are more relaxed, this soft tissue can obstruct the airway and cause it to become obstructed.
  • During sleep, breathing stops several times.
  • Each time you stop breathing, oxygen in your bloodstream decreases.
  • The person awakens many times during the night to breathe.
  • This led to poor sleep and not enough oxygen.
  • People with sleep apnea are often unaware of it.
  • Sleep apnea is usually noticed by the partner who is sleeping.
  • Low oxygen levels, strenuous breathing, and sudden awakenings during the night can all contribute to high blood pressure and heart disease.

The Three Types of Sleep Apnea

There are three types of sleep apnea. They can be classified according to the cause: central sleep apnea (obstructive), central sleep apnea (central), and mixed apnea. Treatment depends on the cause. Let’s examine the causes of each type.

Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition where the upper airway becomes blocked by tissue from the tongue, throat, soft palate, and throat. The blockage may be caused by combination of anatomical factors and irregularities in breathing reflex.

Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition that makes it difficult for a person to breathe due to an obstruction in their airway. Although his chest moves in and outside, the obstruction prevents air from flowing into or out of the lungs. Finally, his oxygen level drops to the point that he can no longer breathe due to his arousal reflex.

Obstructive apnea patients may be affected by anatomical abnormalities in the upper airway, such as passages in the nose or pharynx (throat). These abnormalities can be observed in the head radiographs of many people suffering from obstructive sleeping apnea.

The abnormal nasal structure could be due to a nasal septum defect or chronic swelling from allergies.

Obstructions in the upper pharynx could include enlarged tonsils, adenoids, a long or fleshy soft palate, or a large Uvula (the fleshy tab that hangs from the back of the throat). The problem in the lower pharynx could be a large or unusually long tongue, a tongue that is too far back or down, a small airway opening, a shorter neck, or a very short lower jaw.

Obstructive sleep apnea can be caused by any one of these structural features or a combination thereof.

Obstructive sleep apnea is often caused by body weight. Half to three-quarters of patients suffering from obstructive sleeping apnea have a bodyweight greater than their ideal weight. For several reasons, obstructive sleep apnea can be common among overweight people. People who have more weight often have fatty deposits in their throat tissue that narrow the upper airway. A second reason is that extra weight can cause breathing problems in heavy people.

Obstructive sleep apnea can also be caused by age. The shape and tone of the upper airway muscles tend to change with aging. While many people don’t experience obstructive sleeping apnea while they are young, others develop it during their 60s and 70s.

Also, gender is a factor. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs three times more frequently in men than it is in women. After menopause, however, the likelihood of developing obstructive sleeping apnea in women increases dramatically.

Obstructive sleep apnea can be treated by removing obstructions to the airway.

You can do this by using a breathing device or surgery. Weight loss is often helpful if obesity is not a problem.

It is crucial that a doctor determines the exact cause of obstructive sleeping apnea before recommending the best treatment or sleep apnea surgery.

Central Sleep Apnea

Pure central apnea, which is the most common type of sleep apnea, is the least common. Central apnea refers to the central nervous system or brain that is responsible for the breathing problem. Central apnea is a condition in which the brain’s respiratory control center, which controls breathing, may stop functioning during sleep. It does not signal the chest muscles to make breathing movements. Researchers believe that this could be due to a variety of disorders in the sleep system.

Breathing reflex. It could be an inherited neurological disorder or a neuromuscular disorder that develops later in life.

Pure central apnea can make it difficult to sleep and breathe at the same moment. The person’s breathing stops as soon as they fall asleep. The person wakes up with a startled gasp and an emergency arousal reaction. A person with severe central apnea may not get enough sleep. This can be a very distressing condition and may last many years before it is properly diagnosed.

People with a psychological disorder called sleep-onset anxiety may experience central apnea. People suffering from sleep-onset anxiety have a tendency to panic about falling asleep. They are able to breathe faster and more deeply, which causes a drop in blood carbon dioxide. They fall asleep quickly and their breathing reflex is not activated for long periods of time due to the low-level carbon dioxide. They end up experiencing central apnea and then awakening to breath.

A person suffering from central apnea usually complains about not getting enough sleep. His problem may be described as “insomnia.” This is due to his nightly awakenings. Only 5% of people suffering from insomnia have sleep apnea.

For people with central apnea, obstruction of the airway is usually not a problem.

Research suggests that central apnea can sometimes be triggered by obstructive airway obstruction. If the obstruction of the airway is treated, central apnea can disappear. Central sleep apnea is common in people with heart disease. Central sleep apnea can be treated with continuous positive pressure (CPAP).

Long-term effects from central apnea can be similar to those of obstructive. These include enlargement of the heart, lung complications, and heart failure.

Central sleep apnea can be treated with bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel PAP). Drug therapy is promising. If there are any airway obstructions, surgery may be an option. A nighttime ventilator device might also be used. The diaphragm pacemakers have been also developed. They may be an acceptable treatment for central apnea.

Mixed Apnea

Mixed apnea refers to a combination or central and obstructive hypopnea. Many people suffering from sleep apnea have some type of mixed apnea. Some sleep researchers believe that most people with obstructive sleeping apnea have a central component. Additionally, abnormalities in the brain’s breathing reflex often accompany the development of obstructive.

Different people interpret mixed apnea differently.

According to them, when a person recovers from an obstructional apnea episode, she often “over breathes,” which causes a low blood level of carbon dioxide. This lower level of carbon dioxide can trigger a central event that causes mixed apnea. The more severe the obstruction, the more likely it is that there will be “over-breathing”, and the more apparent the central apnea component.

No matter what the cause or effect of mixed apnea may be, treatment is generally done first. The central apnea can often disappear once the breathing obstruction has been treated.


  • Sleep apnea is when your breathing becomes difficult.
  • Sleep apnea can lead to cardiovascular problems, high blood pressure, and higher chances of stroke and heart attack.
  • There are three types of sleep apnea.
  • The brain is the origin of central apnea (the least common type).
  • Obstructive sleep apnea can be caused by an obstruction in the airway.
  • Mixed apnea is the most common type. It includes central and obstructive.
  • The type of apnea will determine the treatment that is chosen.
woman blocking ears with hands while man snoring bed

Normal Sleep, Snoring, and Sleep Apnea

man suffering from sleep apnea is sound asleep
Not all snorers have apnea, although they typically do. Your sleeping partner may notice pauses in breathing if you have apnea.

Why do we sleep?

No one knows why we sleep. People used to believe that sleep was a time for resting our brains. Polysomnography was then developed. This technology allows scientists to make electrical recordings of brain activity during sleep. Scientists were shocked to find that brains do not remain inactive during sleep.

One theory suggested that sleep is necessary to combat body fatigue. Although our bodies seem to be able to recover from fatigue while we sleep, studies have shown that our brains, and not our muscles, require sleep to function properly.

How much sleep do we need?

There are many factors that influence how much sleep you need.

We used to believe that babies required 21 hours of sleep each night. But, we now know that infants’ sleep requirements vary greatly from one infant to the next. Sixteen-year-olds need about 10 to 11 hours of sleep per night, while an adult needs around 8 hours.

Occasionally, healthy and alert adults can get 4 hours of sleep but this is very rare. Habitually, the average amount of sleep is about 3 hours per night. It has never been proven that anyone needs no sleep.

What happens when people are repeatedly deprived of sleep? The body’s physiological systems are affected by sleep deprivation: hormones and immune system, blood pressure regulation as well as the digestive system and urine production.

Many of our physiological functions have a 24-hour rhythm. Our biological clock is synchronized by the rhythms of going to bed and getting up in the morning. If a person is having trouble sleeping or has an irregular sleep schedule (for example, shift work), it does not send signals to the biological clock to reset its own clock each day and maintain synchronized rhythms.

The body will show signs of a disturbance if the daily rhythms don’t match, such as when someone works the night shift. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from digestive problems, headaches, or other types of cancer.

People who are sleep-deprived experience drowsiness from time to time. This is because their biological clock attempts to get them to go to sleep. Their ability to concentrate and ability to think dullens. Teenagers and school-age children are particularly affected by sleep deprivation. Many of them are severely sleep-deprived.

People who are sleep-deprived may also experience irritability, disorientation, and dreamlike hallucinations. The body’s reactions become slower and more erratic. Sleep-deprived drivers are more likely to cause accidents in their cars. Studies show that driving tasks like driving can be impeded by a person who sleeps only 7 hours per night. For one to have a high level of reaction time, nine hours must sleep every night.

Partial sleep deprivation by itself is not fatal. It can lead to fatalities if it affects the ability of the driver or passenger to drive safely on the highway. An average of four people are killed each time a long-haul truck driver crashes and falls asleep behind the wheel. Driving drunk while asleep is the same as driving drunk.

Sleep quantity, sleep quality and sleep debt

Each person needs to get a certain amount of sleep each night in order to be at their best. We can build up debt if we don’t get enough sleep. This can lead to feeling drowsy throughout the day and a greater likelihood of falling asleep quickly.

However, the quality of our sleep is only one aspect. Quality of sleep is equally important. Is it in long, uninterrupted blocks or broken up into smaller pieces? Is there enough deep sleep?

Sleep apnea is a condition that causes sleep to be interrupted repeatedly during the night. This reduces sleep quality and quantity. It also breaks down the structure and continuity of sleep. Sleep apnea causes people to miss some important and normal stages of sleep.

Let’s take a closer look at what happens in your brain when you sleep.

The Stages of Normal Sleep

The sequence of stages the brain goes through in the night determines the quality of sleep.

Your brain and body begin to settle down after you go to bed. There are two types of sleep: REM (rapid-eye movement) and nonREM (or NREM). REM and NREM sleep alternate during the night.

NREM sleep is quiet sleep. Your brain activity and breathing are slow and steady, and your body is calm and relaxed. Although you may have dreams, they will likely be more thought-like than emotionally.

Active sleep is REM sleep. REM sleep causes active changes to your physiology. Your breathing may become irregular. For several seconds, you may find your breathing stops. Your body temperature increases and blood circulation to your brain increases.

Your large muscles, your leg and arm muscles become paralyzed. You can’t move them other than a few twitches of the fingertips and face. Your eye muscles are activated and your eyes move back and forth like they’re playing ping-pong.

This is what gave rise to the term REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. REM sleep is where most of your dreams occur. REM sleep is where you will experience the most vivid, intense, and emotional dreams.

NREM is the first stage of a typical night’s sleep. NREM sleep progresses through four stages during the first hour, from light to deep sleep. Then, around 70 to 90 minutes after the start of sleep, the deepest levels of sleep begin to light to allow for the first REM phase. The first REM period lasts approximately 10 minutes. This is when the sleep cycle shifts into stage 2 NREM sleep. After that, the cycle begins all over again.

This process takes approximately 90 minutes and continues throughout the night. The REM periods are shorter in the morning. REM periods get longer in the second half of a night. They can last up to 60 minutes. Short periods of stage 2 NREM are also common.

Age affects the amount of REM sleep that a person gets during a normal night. Newborn babies sleep in REM for approximately half of their time. REM sleep is now less than one-quarter of the total time we sleep.

We all need REM sleep. However, we don’t know why. It could be related to REM dreams, which are when we “process” our emotions from waking life.

Our bodies seem to have an automatic mechanism that tries our best to get the right amount of REM sleep. People who are deprived REM sleep but then allowed to go to sleep normally often experience REM rebound.

This is when they have REM-like sleep for a prolonged period of time. It’s as if the bodies are catching up on what they missed and a sense that they have been deprived. People who experience REM rebound often dream more vividly and often have scarier dreams than usual.

Normal breathing during sleep

Breathing Centers and Reflexes

Automatic reflexes control your breathing during sleep. These reflexes are controlled by nerve system sensors that continuously monitor your blood chemistry and send signals to your brain’s breathing centers. Your breathing muscles are then able to control how strong and fast you can breathe at any given time. The brain’s respiratory centers regulate this activity, which is one reason for sleep apnea.

Sensors and “Setpoints”

Your carotid bodies are a group of sensors that monitor your blood chemistry. They are located in your neck’s carotid veins. They detect oxygen levels in your blood and react to low oxygen levels. These sensors aren’t the most important for your breathing reflex, even though oxygen is vital for life, especially for brain cells.

The medulla, a primitive and deep part of your brain, has a more powerful set of sensors. These sensors detect an increase in carbon dioxide levels in your cerebrospinal liquid (the fluid that bathes you brain and spinal cord).

Your body produces carbon dioxide as a waste gas when it uses up oxygen. Your cerebrospinal fluid has a high level of carbon dioxide. This is a sign that your body requires to breathe. You inhale carbon dioxide when you breathe and then exhale it immediately to get fresh air.

The “setpoint” is the concentration of carbon dioxide at which the sensors are activated. Although oxygen sensors work in the same way, their setpoints are less sensitive during sleep.

Depending on whether you are awake, asleep, or between, the setpoints that trigger your breath reflexes can change. The setpoints that trigger your breathing reflexes during sleep are not as sensitive to low oxygen or high carbon dioxide as when you’re awake.

This is because your body is less dependent on oxygen and your breathing is more shallow. Also, the air in your lungs is exchanging less vigorously. As you go from sleeping to waking, your setpoints change.

The setpoints can change even during sleep. REM sleep is characterized by a decrease in the sensitivity of breathing. It is possible to tolerate more carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations can drop very low during REM sleep before breathing reflexes are triggered.

Another factor that contributes to sleep apnea is the sensitivity of the setpoints.

Breathing Muscles

Breathing requires several muscle groups to be used in many places. These include the diaphragm (the intercostal and other muscles attached to the ribs), rib cage (the intercostal, rib and other muscles), the soft palate, tongue, upper and lower pharynx, the throat area behind your mouth, and the voice box (the larynx).

These muscles work together to ensure normal breathing. When you inhale, for example, your rib muscles contract and your tongue muscles stabilize your tongue position. Your soft palate muscles then become taut to keep your airway open.

Another factor that contributes to sleep apnea is the coordination of these muscle groups during breathing.


Snoring is when your soft palate vibrates (the back of your mouth). This can be caused by a variety of factors. During sleep, your soft palate and tongue muscle tone tend to decrease. They can become more relaxed and collapse together.

This can lead to snoring. Tonsils and the tongue can also produce sounds that alter or enhance the quality of snoring.

Snoring is affected by the position of the sleeper. Your tongue can fall toward your throat when you lie on your stomach. This will cause your airway to be blocked.

Snoring can also be caused by obstructions to your airway. You are more likely to snore when you have large adenoids, a large tongue, or your nasal passages become swollen due to allergies or colds.

Snoring can be caused by weight gain. This is because fat tissue builds up in the neck, which can narrow the airway.

Age can also play a role. Because muscle tone decreases with age, older people are more likely to snore.

After menopause, women are more likely to snore.

Snoring can also be aggravated by alcohol, certain medications, or physical exhaustion.

Sleep apnea is more than mere snoring. People snore even if they don’t experience the sleep-related interruptions and breathing problems that can be associated with sleep apnea. Although it isn’t a serious health risk, occasional or light snoring that doesn’t interrupt breathing can cause significant discomfort for a partner. Here are some solutions for occasional, harmless snoring:

  • You can sleep on your side. Asleep position monitor can be used to train you to sleep on your side.
  • Before you go to bed, avoid alcohol.
  • Talk to your doctor if you have any prescriptions or over-the-counter medications that may be aggravating your snoring.
  • Ask your doctor for an antihistamine if you have nasal congestion. There are also nasal strips that can be used to relieve congestion. These nasal strips can be purchased at pharmacies.
  • Reduce your body weight.
  • If necessary, the partner sleeping beside you can use soft foam earplugs. These earplugs are available at many pharmacies and industrial safety shops.

Simple Snoring can turn into sleep apnea

When the vibrations of the throat and tongue are accompanied by a variety of factors discussed earlier in this article, such as an instability in the breathing reflexes or a structural narrowing (for example, due to weight gain or enlarged tonsils), then snoring can turn into sleep apnea.

Sleep-disordered sleeping can be very severe and vary from person to person. Some people may experience snoring, which can be mild or occasional, that gradually becomes more severe and frequent, which could indicate sleep apnea.

This is often seen in adolescents when there is heavy snoring and, occasionally, brief apnea events. The picture can change gradually to more severe snoring and longer periods of nonbreathing. The pattern can become obstructive sleep apnea later in life.

This may lead to a longer period of nonbreathing and disrupted sleep patterns, as well as fluctuations in blood oxygen, daytime drowsiness, and a disruption in the structure of sleep. Even if you have never suffered from sleep apnea in your life, some people over 50 may experience a loss of muscle tone as a trigger for the development of sleep disorder.

It is possible for snoring to progress to sleep apnea in certain people, and you may end up needing sleep apnea surgery. This depends on all the factors that we have discussed here: breathing reflexes and the structure of the lungs, muscle coordination and inherited tendencies.


These are the most important aspects to sleep:

  • How much sleep do you get
  • Quality of sleep
  • The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
  • Sleep apnea can interfere with any of these.
  • Sleep apnea can be caused by an abnormality in the breathing reflex.
  • A loss of muscle tone in the throat and tongue can cause snoring.
  • The vibration of the soft tongue is responsible for most of the sounds associated with snoring.
  • It is possible to have snoring that doesn’t stop your breathing. These tips can help you reduce or eliminate snoring.
cpap machine mask hose

Top 5 Central Sleep Apnea Treatment Options

central sleep apnea treatment options part 4 of 4
Sleep apnea, which is when breathing stops and starts while you sleep, is a big reason why people don’t get a good night of sleep. Fortunately, it can be treated.


The most commonly used treatment for central apnea are drugs that stimulate breathing reflexes.

Some drugs are not very efficient; others work for a time, but people may become more sensitive to the drug over time.

Others have unwanted side effects. The current central sleep apnea treatment should only be used as a temporary measure. We can only hope that experts will do more research in this area.

Acetazolamide has been the most popular drug. Acetazolamide makes blood more acidic which stimulates the breathing reflex. Studies have shown that Acetazolamide can reduce the frequency of apnea episodes and cause a slight decrease in daytime sleepiness.

Some studies have not been as positive, and reports indicate that the drug can cause obstructive sleep apnea. Although more research is required, Acetazolamide appears to be the most promising drug for central sleep apnea treatment.

Clomipramine, an antidepressant, has also been shown to improve central apnea. Although it has only been administered to a small number of patients, it has positively affected sleep and respiration and has fewer apnea episodes. Some patients became tolerant to the drug within 6-12 months. After that, it was no longer effective. Clomipramine can also cause impotence, which is one of the side effects.

Doxapram, a respiratory stimulant that can treat central sleep apnea treatment, has also been tested experimentally. This drug is intended to stimulate patients’ breathing while still recovering from anesthesia.

It is not recommended for long-term usage. Some side effects include hyperactivity, irregular heartbeats, high blood pressure, nausea, diarrhea, and urinary retention. People with high blood pressure, heart disease, and irregular heartbeats should not use it. Many people with central sleep apnea treatment have serious complications. This drug’s effectiveness remains to be determined.

Theophylline and aminophylline are both bronchodilators used to treat asthma and emphysema. Also, theophylline and almitrine treat depression in the breathing reflexes due to certain drugs like morphine or codeine.

Medroxyprogesterone is a hormone similar to female progesterone and stimulates respiration. Tryptophan is an amino acid that is said to be an antidepressant. None of these drugs have had a dramatic effect on central sleep apnea treatment. Side effects can be severe for all but tryptophan.

Mixed results have also been reported for oxygen. You can use it in severe cases with CPAP or bi-level PAP (CPAP)

There are many medications available, and more are being developed every year. One hopes that there will soon be a drug that can provide central sleep apnea treatment without side effects. This field requires more research.

Breathing devices

Newer Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Technology

Many CPAP variations have been developed thanks to technological advances. These can be used to help those suffering from central sleep apnea. AutoNation-servo devices are a new type of breathing device that can analyze a person’s breath and mimic it or improve when their breathing becomes irregular.

People suffering from central apnea, particularly those who have had poor results with CPAP, should consult their sleep center to inquire about the auto-servo-type CPAPs, which are currently available at Respironics, Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA and ResMed Corp. in San Diego, CA. You may use an auto-servo device in some cases instead of a heavier mechanical ventilator.

See the section earlier on treating obstructive sleep apnea for more information about CPAP or bilevel PAP. After a consultation with your sleep specialist, you should only make the decision about central sleep apnea treatment.

Diaphragmatic Pacemaker

The diaphragmatic pacemaker functions in the same way as a heart pacemaker. The pacemaker stimulates rhythmic muscle contractions using tiny pulses of rhythmic electric current.

The first diaphragmatic pacemakers were developed for patients with poliomyelitis whose breathing reflexes had been damaged. The “iron lungs,” which were soon developed, meant that you no longer needed the device.

Since then, some work has been done using diaphragmatic pacemakers for spinal cord injuries whose breathing reflexes were disrupted and infants with bad breathing reflexes. Some diaphragmatic pacemakers were tested on adults with central sleep apnea.

This seems ideal in theory. The absence of the nerve signal to the diaphragm tells it to breathe during sleep. The pacemaker used in rest should be capable of providing this signal. This technology is not very advanced, and the diaphragmatic pulse maker has not yet been widely available.

This may be partly due to the lack of demand. With better recognition of central sleeping apnea, demand may rise. The delicate surgery required to implant the pacemaker is necessary to place two tiny electrodes near the phrenic nerves, which control the diaphragm.

You can either inject the local anesthetic in the neck or use general anesthesia in the chest cavity. It is common to stimulate both sides of the body’s nerves rather than one.

This would cause diaphragm stimulation to only one side. During surgery, a tiny receiver is also placed under the skin. A radiofrequency generator is used to stimulate the pacemaker.

It is placed on the skin above the receiver. There are some risks and problems with using a diaphragmatic pacemaker for sleep apnea. It can also cause obstruction apnea, which could lead to new situations.

The most serious risk is that the phrenic nervous could be damaged during surgery or later. The person would be paralyzed and unable to breathe independently if they lost both of the phrenic nerves.

It is essential to perform the surgery with great care to avoid any nerve damage. It is a wise decision to consider this type of surgery. It would be best to look for a hospital with a history of using diaphragmatic pacemakers.

Also, seek out the most familiar surgeon with the procedure. A diaphragmatic pacemaker is currently not an option for many people suffering from central apnea. However, it might be possible for some patients. These devices could become more appealing as research continues and more experience is gained.

Mechanical Ventilators

People with central apnea can use various mechanical breathing systems to aid their sleep. You can use these devices to force air into the lungs using “positive pressure,” which mimics the rhythmic breathing pattern.

A positive-pressure ventilator is a device that continuously pushes air through a tube into the airway. You can supply air via a nasal mask, face mask, or tube.

It may also enter the body through a tracheostomy (an opening at the throat) or the nose or mouth. The use of a positive-pressure ventilator is more straightforward than that of a negative-pressure ventilator.

A negative-pressure ventilator functions differently. A negative-pressure ventilator works differently. The “iron lung” is probably the most well-known example. It was created in the 1930s to help polio victims “breathe” after losing their ability to breathe. The iron lung has been reduced to a smaller size and is now limited to the chest.

There have been problems with mechanical ventilators. It can be challenging to regulate the rhythm.

You should closely monitor blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels to ensure those ventilator settings are safe and effective. A mechanical system that controls all breathing is uncomfortable for people who can breathe normally and are somewhat independent.

The latest generation of ventilators is small and portable. They minimize discomfort by allowing the individual to breathe naturally and stopping breathing.

These ventilators are small and portable and can be very effective for people with central apnea who cannot sleep or breathe simultaneously.


  • The most effective central sleep apnea treatment is the conservative one and will work for you.
  • Treatments for mixed apnea or obstructive sleeping apnea
    • Weight loss
    • Breathing devices like CPAP
    • Oral appliances, such as jaw or tongue retainers
    • Medication
    • Sleep apnea surgery
  • Before you agree to have surgery:
    • Ask a sleep specialist for an estimate of the likelihood that surgery can eliminate your sleep apnea.
  • Treatments for central hypopnea
    • Medication
    • Ask for a second opinion by an ENT surgeon who has experience and skill in treating sleep apnea.


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